Tag: Microbiota Seminar

Murielle Thomas (INRA Jouy), The contribution of the microbiota to gut and lung physiology

Muriel Thomas (Micalis, INRA Jouy-en-Josas, PI “Epithelium and microbiota” team, France)

Full PDF presentation: Thomas Muriel_Bordeaux talk
The microbiota inhabiting the gut is a main actor of digestive physio-pathology, and we have contributed to show that the bacterial colonization is critical for a proper homeostasis of intestinal epithelial cells (1-5). Our data show how microbiota, specifically the primo-colonizing bacteria arriving early after birth, may impact genuine features of epithelium by considering its morphology, secretive, absorptive and storage functions. After decades of research about gut microbiota, it is well established that bacterial families strongly impact gut immunity and physiology in a specific manner.
In 2010, the lung microbiota has been described, disturbing the ancient dogma based on the absence of microbes in healthy lungs. The lung bacterial community involves mainly Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacteria, and Veillonella in healthy human lungs and the bacterial load and composition are changing along respiratory pathologies. Thus, based on our expertise in gut, we have recently developed a new area of research in our team to study the impact of lung microbiota on lung physiology. In this context, we focused our study on the effect of lung microbiota in the susceptibility to asthma (model using the sensitization and a challenge with House Dust Mite). We have established that a microbial education of the mucosal microenvironment occurs in the lung and that appropriate bacterial lung stimuli during early life are critical for allergic asthma susceptibility. Our study brings evidence that there is a reciprocal influence between lung bacteria and asthma in neonatal mice, highlighting the bacterial impact on respiratory pathophysiology.
1.              Rul, F., Ben-Yahia, L., Chegdani, F., Wrzosek, L., Thomas, S., Noordine, M. L., Gitton, C., Cherbuy, C., Langella, P., and Thomas, M. (2011) Impact of the metabolic activity of Streptococcus thermophilus on the colon epithelium of gnotobiotic rats. J Biol Chem 286, 10288-10296
2.              Wrzosek, L., Miquel, S., Noordine, M. L., Bouet, S., Joncquel Chevalier-Curt, M., Robert, V., Philippe, C., Bridonneau, C., Cherbuy, C., Robbe-Masselot, C., Langella, P., and Thomas, M. (2013) Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii influence the production of mucus glycans and the development of goblet cells in the colonic epithelium of a gnotobiotic model rodent. BMC Biol 11, 61
3.              Deschemin, J. C., Noordine, M. L., Remot, A., Willemetz, A., Afif, C., Canonne-Hergaux, F., Langella, P., Karim, Z., Vaulont, S., Nicolas, G and Thomas, M. (2016) The microbiota shifts the iron sensing of intestinal cells. FASEB J. Jan;30(1):252-61.
4.              Miquel, S., Leclerc, M., Martin, R., Chain, F., Lenoir, M., Raguideau, S., Hudault, S., Bridonneau, C., Northen, T., Bowen, B., Bermudez-Humaran, L. G., Sokol, H., Thomas, M., and Langella, P. (2015) Identification of metabolic signatures linked to anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. MBio 6
5.              Tomas, J., Reygner, J., Mayeur, C., Ducroc, R., Bouet, S., Bridonneau, C., Cavin, J. B., Thomas, M., Langella, P., and Cherbuy, C. (2015) Early colonizing Escherichia coli elicits remodeling of rat colonic epithelium shifting toward a new homeostatic state. ISME J 9, 46-58