International Journal of Cancer: Beyond the tumour microenvironment by Laplane et al.

For decades cancer research had focused exclusively on the tumor. Later the vision was broadend to the tumor microenvironment (TME). Today five researchers – both philosophers and scientists – call for a look beyond the tumor microenvironment. In the minireview they show the crucial importance of the tumor organismal environment (TOE).
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Philosophy of Biology: Immunology and individuality by Thomas Pradeu


What do philosophers say about immunology, and to what extent can this be useful to immunologists? Immunology and philosophy have a rich history of dialogue. Immunologists have long been influenced by ideas from philosophy, notably the concept of 'self', and many philosophers have explored the conceptual, theoretical and methodological foundations of immunology. This article discusses two aspects of this dialogue: biological individuality and immunogenicity. Read more here.